Bilardo Topları Hangi Malzemeden Yapılır ?

Bilardo Topları. Bilardo Topları neden yapılır? Bilardo Topunun yapımında hangi maddeler kullanılır? Bilardo Toplarının hammedesi nedir? Fenol ve Formaldehit bilorda topları nasıl üretilir? vb. bir çok sorunun cevabını arıyacağız bu makalede...

Bilardo Topları neden yapılır? Bilardo Topunun yapımında hangi maddeler kullanılır? Bilardo Toplarının hammedesi nedir? Fenol ve Formaldehit bilorda topları nasıl üretilir? vb. bir çok sorunun cevabını arıyacağız bu makalede…

Yaklaşık 1912 yılına kadar, neredeyse tüm bilardo topları fildişinden yapılmıştır. Bir topun yapılabilmesi için yüksek kalitede fil dişi ve  kusursuz bir işlemenin olması gerekiyor.

Bilordonun popüler hale gelmesiyle fillerin sayısı azalmıştır ve bilardo topu pahalılaşmıştır.

Fil dişi avcıları yüzünden meydana gelen fil popülasyonunundaki düşüş bazı ülkelerde endişe yararttı ve  fildişi ve fildişi ürünlerinin alınmasına ve satılmasına ciddi kısıtlamalar getirdi. Bununla birlikte bilorda topları yapımında fildişi yerine başka malzemeler aranma arayışına girildi. Bir erken çözüm, preslenmiş bir odun hamuru ve kemik tozu karışımı oldu. Bu malzemeden pekte memnun kalınmadı.

Günümüzde bilardo topları için halen kullanılmakta olan en uygun malzeme, bazen fenolik olarak da bilinen ilk sentetik polimerlerden-fenol-formaldehitten biridir. Bu malzeme sentetik polimerlerin bulunduğu yıllarda gerçekleşen önemli ve enteresan olayla keşfedilmiştir.

Günümüz Bilardo Topları Üreticisi Kimdir?

Fenol-formaldehit sentezleme sürecinin keşfedicisi Leo Baekeland’dir. Genç ve çok parlak bir mucit olan kimyager, 1900’lerin başında Belçika’dan ABD’ye göç etti. Nispeten üretimi daha pahalı olan doğal malzemelerin yerini alacak sentetik bir gomalak (cila işlerinde kullanılan hayvalsal reçine) oluşturmak için araştırma yapmaya başladı. Gomalak, cila, ahşap koruyucu ve o zamanlar ortaya çıkan elektrik endüstrisinde bir elektrik izolatörü olarak kullanılmış ve halen kullanılmaktadır.

Günümüz Bilardo Topları Neden Yapılır?

Çabaları sonunda, fenol [veya karbürik asit (C6H5OH), beyaz kristal bir materyal], formaldehit (renksiz ve zehirli bir gaz olan HCHO) ile kontrollü ısı ve basınç şartlarında reaksiyona sokularak uygun bir sentetik malzemenin  üretilebileceğini ortaya koydu. Bu reaksiyonun ürünü, sonradan şeffaf ve kehribar rengi bir katıya sertleştirilmiş bir sıvıdır. Baekeland buna bakalit adını verdi.

Bugün, genel adı fenol-formaldehit veya sadece fenolik olarak anılmaktadır. Keşifinden kısa bir süre sonra, bakalitin bilardo topları için ideal sentetik malzeme olduğu keşfedildi.

Fenol-formaldehit, termoset polimerdir ve bir dizi istenen özelliğe sahiptir. Termoset polimerler, çok ısıya dayanıklı ve sert, seramik malzemelerin birçoğundan daha az gevrek, en yaygın çözeltiler ve çözücülerle çok kararlı ve etkisizdirler. Kolaylıkla solmaz veya renk değişikliği yapmaz. Ayrıca, nispeten ucuz bir malzemedir ve modern fenolikler çok çeşitli renklere sahip olarak üretilebilir.

Bu polimerin elastik özellikleri fildişi renklerine çok benzer ve fenolik bilardo topları çarpıştığında, fildişi toplarla aynı sesi çıkarmaktadır.

 

YAZIYI PAYLAŞABİLİRSİNİZ
Metalurji ve Malzeme Mühendisi. Bilim ve teknoloji meraklısı.

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